Maastricht Student Journal of Psychology and Neuroscience 2020-02-27T08:27:14+00:00 Peter van Ruitenbeek Open Journal Systems <p>The Maastricht Journal of Psychology and Neuroscience (MSJPN) aims to stimulate both bachelor and master students of our faculty in their academic education and, furthermore, provide a platform to publish both empirical work and reviews. Every year, one volume including the best papers is published.</p> Letter from the editors 2019-10-03T13:44:54+00:00 Anke Sambeth Silke Conen Luís Tojo Laurien Nagels-coune Tim Leufkens Letter from the editors for Vol. 3 of the Maastricht Student Journal of Psychology and Neuroscience 2014-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The relationship between impulsivity, weight concern and the yoyo-effect in healthy women 2019-10-03T13:44:54+00:00 Astrid Meesters <div class="page" title="Page 1"><div class="layoutArea"><div class="column"><p><span>Weight cycling, or the so-called yoyo-effect, is an unhealthy aspect of eating behaviour. It is hypothesized that being more impulsive is related to more weight cycling. Furthermore, the yoyo-effect is expected to follow from an interaction between impulsivity and weight concern; high-impulsive, high weight concerned eaters might experience the yoyo-effect to a higher degree than low-impulsive, high weight concerned eaters. In the current study, 214 women aged 25-50 were recruited. Weight cycling, weight concern and two concepts of impulsivity were assessed, namely trait impulsiveness and reward sensitivity. It is found that trait impulsive people and weight concerned people show a higher degree of weight cycling. The results do not reveal an interaction between both aspects of impulsivity and weight concern. This study suggests that impulsivity, as well as weight concern, might play a role in maintaining a healthy body weight and reducing the risks of the yoyo-effect. </span></p></div></div></div> 2014-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) GABAA receptor-mediated tonic transmission in sleep-wake cycles 2019-10-03T13:44:54+00:00 Wiesje Pelkmans <p class="p1">Sleep-wake cycles are an important physiological characteristic of the mammalian rain and essential for wellbeing and cognitive performance. In this review, a novel and comprehensive view on the organisation of sleep in the brain is described. Evidence is presented that sleep is regulated in a local manner and is dependent on prior cortical activity. Moreover, the composition, expression, and role of a specific type of GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by extrasynaptic δ-GABAa receptors, known as tonic GABAa transmission, is described. Furthermore, this article reviews findings linking the regulation of sleep to this tonic GABAergic conductance that is observed in the thalamo-cortical circuitry relevant to slow wave sleep. This will contribute to our understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying the contribution of GABAergic tonic transmission to the neural basis of sleep-wake regulation, to ultimately develop more efficient clinical interventions to treat sleep disorders.</p> 2014-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The negative neural correlates of consciousness 2019-10-03T13:44:54+00:00 Marian Schneider Ingo Marquardt <div class="page" title="Page 1"><div class="layoutArea"><div class="column"><p class="p1">For a long time, scientists and philosophers alike have been speculating about the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC). Although definitions differ, usually an NCC denotes neural events whose occurrence correlates with our phenomenal experiences. In this essay, we motivate the introduction of the concept of a 'negative neural correlate of consciousness' (NNCC). The NNCC can be conceptually understood as neural events whose occurrence inversely correlates with a given phenomenal experience. We wish to introduce this concept for two reasons. First, it is an elegant solution to the problem of sufficiency that so far has unduly neglected in the NCC debate. Secondly, based on the Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness, we argue that only by pairing each NCC with a corresponding NNCC will scientists ever be able to predict conscious experience from brain data. We discuss empirical implications of and potential objections to the suggested NNCC framework.</p></div></div></div> 2014-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Steps towards sustainable student support: Stressors among international high school students living in a boarding house 2020-02-27T08:27:14+00:00 Nienke van Alphen <p>High school is a stressful time for any adolescent. But what about teenagers who recently moved across the world to live in a boarding house and start at a competitive international school? This study aimed to discover what stressors boarding students at an international school experience through a literature research and 15 semi-structured interviews with current students and recent graduates. The findings indicate that the boarders experience a wide variety of boarding-, peer-, and school-related stressors. Interventions are suggested to address the mentioned stressors and to help the school design effective programs to promote student wellbeing.</p> 2014-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Recovery from Work-Related Stress: A literature review 2019-10-03T13:44:54+00:00 Carmen Fehrmann Franziska Depenbrock <p>Occupational stress adversely affects both the individual and the organization. Because of its economical and health relevance, much research has been devoted to employee recovery from work stress. Defined as a process of replenishing resources, recovery has been suggested to be important in reducing work-related fatigue, thereby making individuals feeling ready again to meet the demands at work. This literature review systematically summarizes findings from research on recovery. The literature search was conducted based on the PsychInfo database. Forty-eight journal articles were included in the review. Overall, studies consistently implicate that daily recovery is especially important to avoid long-term strain reactions. Moreover, research has found specific off-job activities as well as experiences attached to these activities to promote recovery, thereby improving performance, health, and well-being. Taken together, results imply that both individuals and organizations should be concerned about employee recovery and possibilities to support it during work and non-work time.</p> 2014-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Lacking control, Pattern Perception, and Symptom Overendorsement 2019-10-03T13:44:54+00:00 Leonie Banning <p>Whitson and Galinksy (2008) claimed to have shown that a state of chaos – i.e. uncontrollability – promotes pattern perception and spurious beliefs. In this lab report, we discuss an attempt to replicate Whitson and Galinsky’s (2008) results. Furthermore, we tried to go one step further by exploring the possibility that uncontrollability and fantasy proneness promotes symptom overendorsement as an internal strategy to create order. In a within-subjects design, we asked 28 individuals to think about an uncontrollable situation or a situation in which they had been in full control. Next, participants were given a Snowy Picture Task (VPT), a Superstitious Beliefs Test (SBT), and a test tapping into symptom overendorsement (SIMS). We found that whether being in control or lacking control does not influence symptom overendorsement. Furthermore, we were not able to replicate Whitson and Galinsky’s (2008) results. Limitations and implications are discussed. </p> 2014-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Memories in public speaking performance anxiety reconstructed: a qualitative exploration using a cognitive and etiological model 2019-10-03T13:44:54+00:00 Karlijn Hermans <p>Prior research on social anxiety disorder (SAD) demonstrated the importance of anxiety provoking images, which can be related to memories. The present study examines how imagery plays a role in young adults’ public speaking anxiety. The experiential intervention imagery rescripting (ImRs), conducted in fourteen participants with public speaking anxiety, resulted in reconstructing memories from adolescence. In order to explore which themes contribute to anxiety provoking images, the study of reconstructed memories focused on the cognitive anxiety process and etiological factors. Qualitative theory-driven analysis of these memories demonstrates that the anxiety process fits the cognitive model on SAD. With regard to etiology, expected influences of negative peer behaviour and parents were small or not found whereas influence of negative teacher behaviour was found. The present results therefore suggest that ImRs could be effective for the specific anxiety group which should be directed on negative teacher behaviour as contributor to their anxiety. </p> 2014-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Involvement of the FKBP5 gene in the pathogenesis of stress-related disorders and antidepressant response: An update 2019-10-03T13:44:54+00:00 Irene Trilla <p>The FKBP5 gene has been shown to modulate stress responses by regulating glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity. Because stressful events are increasingly recognized as important environmental risk factors of psychiatric disorders, FKBP5 has recently become a candidate gene in research on stress-related conditions. This review aims to provide a concise overview of current knowledge about the FKBP5 gene and its clinical implications and suggest directions for future research. Firstly, the functional role of the gene will be described. Associations with affective and post-traumatic stress disorders will then be discussed in the context of gene-by-environment interactions. Finally, the usefulness of FKBP5 genotype as predictor of antidepressant drug response will be outlined.</p> 2014-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Spirituality and Resilience: New Insights Into Their Relation With Life Satisfaction and Depression 2019-10-03T13:44:54+00:00 Stella Verena Fangauf <p>Spirituality is not only commonly under debate as part of peoples’ quest for meaning, but has also been subject to many studies concerning its influence on people with severe illnesses. The current research aims at investigating its influence on mental health. For this purpose a four-scale questionnaire was used to test peoples’ spirituality and resilience as well as their life satisfaction and current symptoms of depression. To diversify the sample the survey was conducted in three languages, namely English, German and Dutch. Spirituality was found to correlate positively with life satisfaction and negatively with depression. Furthermore, resilience was identified as a mediator of the effect of spirituality on depression and as a partial mediator for the effect on life satisfaction. This study therefore suggests spirituality and resilience could be valuable factors in promoting peoples’ mental health.</p> 2014-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Modality-specific encoding of conceptual person identity in the Fusiform Face Area 2019-10-03T13:44:54+00:00 Daan Schetselaar <p>I employed multi-voxel pattern analysis to fMRI data from two functionally defined clusters in the Fusiform Face Area (FFA); mFus and pFus. Stimulus information was decoded from hemodynamic response patterns evoked by three fictional identities. These were comprised of sets of semantic person information and corresponding faces. By presenting identities with overlapping visual and semantic features we could attribute successful decoding to the differentiating feature. Our data suggest a functional differentiation between pFus and mFus. Analysis of response patterns in pFus indicated that this cluster is engaged in perceptual analysis during face presentation and in retrieval of the corresponding face representation during presentation of semantic stimuli. In mFus semantic items appear to evoke a single corresponding face representation whereas during face perception this cluster is likely to be engaged in retrieval of semantic features by activation of a collection of corresponding visual representations. I propose that mFus supports conceptual knowledge of people by activating visual features that correspond to semantic categories.</p> 2014-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)