Job satisfaction and Life satisfaction: An analysis of the influence of socio-demographic factors and industries in Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands
AbstractThis study analyses the reciprocal nature of the relationship between job and life satisfaction as first introduced by Judge and Watanabe (1993). It focuses on the significance of autonomy at work, income satisfaction and industry sectors as predictors of job satisfaction and subjective general health and industry sectors as predictors of life satisfaction. Results are compared between three geographically close countries, namely Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands. The significance of these predictors in the three countries is analysed through OLS regression using data from a survey conducted in 2012 provided by the European Social Survey (ESS). In this way, the following conclusions can be drawn: Firstly, the reciprocal relationship holds due to potential spill over between both job and life. Secondly, in all three countries, job satisfaction increases life satisfaction more than vice versa. Thirdly, more autonomy at work will lead to increased job satisfaction levels in all three countries with the effect being highest in the Netherlands. Further, only in Belgium will industry sectors influence both job and life satisfaction directly and indirectly. In contrast, in Germany and the Netherlands income dissatisfaction will lower job satisfaction directly but increase it indirectly. Lastly, a higher subjective general health will increase life satisfaction in these two countries while differences in predictors to Belgium were explained by varying working conditions. The study introduces the importance of comparing industries across countries when looking at job and life satisfaction. Future research might extend the study in this direction, but also attempt at validating these results over time and including ESS-data on several years. Additionally, further predictors as well as more countries or regions should be included to extend the insights delivered by this study.
Alavi, H. R., & Askaripur, M. R. (2003). The Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Job Satisfaction of Personnel in Government Organizations. Public Personnel Management, 32(4).
Bakker, A. B. (2011). An Evidence-Based Model of Work Engagement. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20(4), 265-269. doi:10.1177/0963721411414534
Brand, S., Beck, J., Hatzinger, M., Harbaugh, A., Ruch, W., & Holsboer-Trachsler, E. (2010). Associations between satisfaction with life, burnout-related emotional and physical exhaustion, and sleep complaints. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 11, 744-754.
Cheung, H., & Chan, A. W. H. (2009). The Effect of Education on Life Satisfaction Across Countries. The Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 55(1), 124-136.
Chida, Y., & Steptoe, A. (2008). Positive psychological well-being and mortality: A quantitative review of prospective observational studies Psychosomatic Medicine, 70, 741-756.
Cimete, G., Gencalp, N. S., & Keskin, G. (2003). Quality of Life and Job Satisfaction of Nurses. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 18(2), 151-158.
Clark, A. E. (1997). Job Satisfaction and Gender: why are women so happy at work? Labour Economics, 8, 223-242.
Clark, A. E., & Oswald, A. J. (1994). Unhappiness and Unemployment. The Economic Journal, 104(424), 648-659.
Clark, A. E., Oswald, A. J., & Warr, P. (1996). Is Job Satisfaction U-shaped in Age? Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 69(1), 57-81.
Cuñado, J., & Pérez-de-Gracia, F. (2012). Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain Social Indicators Research, 108(1), 185-196.
Delhey, J. (2004). Quality of life in Europe.
Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psvchological Bulletin, 95, 542-575.
Easterlin, R. A. (1974). Does Economic Growth Improve the Human Lot? Some Empirical Evidence. In e. Paul A. David and
Melvin W. Reder (Ed.), Nations and Households in Economic Growth: Essays in Honor of Moses Abramovitz (pp. 89-125). New York: Academic Press.
Easterlin, R. A. (1995). Will raising the incomes of all increase the Hapiness of all? Journal of Economic Behaviour & Organization, 27(1), 35-47.
Easterlin, R. A. (2006). Life cycle happiness and its sources. Journal of Economic Psychology, 27(4), 463-482. doi:10.1016/j.joep.2006.05.002
Erdogan, B., Bauer, T. N., Truxillo, D. M., & Mansfield, L. R. (2012). Whistle While You Work: A Review of the Life Satisfaction Literature. Journal of Management, 38(4), 1038-1083. doi:10.1177/0149206311429379
ESS. Measuring National Context. Retrieved from http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org/methodology/measuring_national_context.html
ESS. Translations. Retrieved from http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org/methodology/translation.html
ESS. (2012a). Appendix A7: VARIABLES AND QUESTIONS, ESS6-2012. Retrieved from http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org/docs/round6/survey/ESS6_appendix_a7_e02_1.pdf
ESS. (2012b). Sampling for the European Social Survey Round VI: Principles and Requirements. Retrieved from Mannheim: http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org/docs/round6/methods/ESS6_sampling_guidelines.pdf
ESS. (2015). ESS Themes. Retrieved from http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org/about/participating_countries.html
Eurofound. (2015). Financial Services Sector: Working conditions and job quality. Eurofound Working Conditions Survey.
Eurostat. (2015). Quality of life in Europe - facts and views - overall life satisfaction. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Quality_of_life_in_Europe_-_facts_and_views_-_overall_life_satisfaction
Ferrante, F. (2009). Education, Aspirations and Life Satisfaction. Kyklos, 62(4), 542-562.
Frey, B. S., & Stutzer, A. (2002). Happiness and economics : how the economy and institutions affect well-being [Press release]
Haar, J. M., & Roche, M. A. (2010). Family supportive organization perceptions and employee outcomes: The mediating effects of life satisfaction. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21, 999-1014.
Hochwarter, W. A., Ferris, G. R., Perrewé, P. L., Witt, L. A., &
Loewotz, C. (2001). A Note on the Nonlinearity of the Age-Job-Satisfaction Relationship. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31(6), 1223-1237.
Hulin, C. (2003). Job Attitudes. Comprehensive Handbook Of Psychology. doi:10.1002/0471264385.wei1211
Iverson, R. D., & Maguire, C. (2000). The relationship between job and life satisfaction: Evidence from a remote mining community. Human Relations, 53(6), 807-839.
Judge, T. A., & Watanabe, S. (1993). Another Look at the Job Satisfaction - Life Satisfaction Relationship. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(6), 939-948.
Kantaka, D. M., Futrellb, C. M., & Sagerc, J. K. (1992). Job Satisfaction and Life Satisfaction in a Sales Force. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 12(1), 1-7. doi:10.1080/08853134.1992.10753893
Lincoln, J. R., & Kalleberg, A. L. (1985). Work organization and workforce commitment: A study of plants and employees in the U.S. and Japan. American Sociological Review, 50, 738-760.
Locke, E. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. Handbook Of Industrial And Organizational Psychology, 1, 1297-1343.
López-Noval, B., & Pugno, M. (2013). Understanding the Relationship between Education and Life Satisfaction. https://www.unican.es/NR/rdonlyres/F2CF6470-FBE2-45ED-9C66-870027B077D0/87554/LopezNovalPugno_abstractRome2013.pdf Retrieved from https://www.unican.es/NR/rdonlyres/F2CF6470-FBE2-45ED-9C66-870027B077D0/87554/LopezNovalPugno_abstractRome2013.pdf
Mora, T., & Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A. (2009). The Job Satisfaction Gender gap among young recent university graduates: Evidence from Catalonia. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 38(4), 581-589. doi:10.1016/j.socec.2009.02.003
Mortimer, J. T., Finch, M. D., & Maruyama, G. (1988). Work experience and job satisfaction: Variation by age and gender Work Experience and Psychological Development through the Life Span (P. D. Baltes and 0. G. Brim, Jr., Eds.), (pp. 109-155): Academic Press.
Mortimer, J. T., & Lorence, J. (1989). Satisfaction and involvement: Disentangling a deceptively simple relationship. Social Psychology Quarterly, 52(4), 249-265.
OECD. (2013). OECD Guidelines on Measuring Subjective Well-being. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264191655-en
OECD. (2015). OECD Better Life Index. Retrieved from http://www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org/topics/life-satisfaction/
Onrec.com. (2015). Employees leave for a better work life balance. Retrieved from http://www.onrec.com/news/statistics-and-trends/employees-leave-for-a-better-work-life-balance
Pallant, J. (2005). SPSS SURVIVAL MANUAL - A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS for Windows (2nd ed.). Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
Robbins, S. (1995). Organizational behavior management. Tehran: Business studies and researches institute., 1.
Robertson, T. The Effects of Autonomy on Job Satisfaction. Retrieved from http://work.chron.com/effects-autonomy-job-satisfaction-14677.html
Rode, J. C. (2004). Job satisfaction and life satisfaction revisited: A longitudinal test of an integrated model. Human Relations, 57(9), 1205-1230. doi:10.1177/0018726704047143
Ross, C. E., & Reskin, B. F. (1992). Education, Control at Work, and Job Satisfaction. Social Science Research, 21, 134-^148.
Rydland, L. T., Arnesen, S., & Ostensen, A. G. (2007). Contextual data for the European Social Survey. Retrieved from Bergen: http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org/docs/methodology/ESS_context_sources.pdf
Tabachnik, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (4th ed.). New