Maastricht Student Journal of Psychology and Neuroscience <p>The Maastricht Journal of Psychology and Neuroscience (MSJPN) aims to stimulate both bachelor and master students of our faculty in their academic education and, furthermore, provide a platform to publish both empirical work and reviews. Every year, one volume including the best papers is published.</p> Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University en-US Maastricht Student Journal of Psychology and Neuroscience 2214-6830 <p>Authors can use either their accepted author manuscript for:</p><ul><li>Use at a conference, meeting or for teaching purposes.</li><li>Internal training.</li><li>Sharing individual articles with colleagues for their research use (also known as 'scholarly sharing').</li><li>Use in a subsequent compilation of the author's, or the supervisor's works.</li><li>Inclusion in a thesis or dissertation.</li><li>Reuse of portions or extracts from the article in other works.</li><li>Preparation of derivative works (other than for commercial purposes).</li></ul> Colophon 2018 <p>Colophon for the 7th edition 2018</p> Peter van Ruitenbeek ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-18 2018-12-18 7 1 4 Letter from the editorial board 2018 <p>Letter from the editorial board ed.7 2018</p> Peter van Ruitenbeek ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-18 2018-12-18 7 5 6 Tangled Up in Confounds - Unravelling the Controversial Roles of MTL-structures in Familiarity and Recollection <div><p>Recognition memory is commonly divided into ‘knowing that you encountered something before’ (familiarity) and ‘remembering specific, accompanying details’ (recollection). To date, no consensus could be reached concerning the methodological validity, nor the neuronal correlates of familiarity and recollection within the medial temporal lobe. Specifically, a dual-process model and a multi-attribute hypothesis compete about the role of the hippocampus in solely recollection or both recollection and familiarity, while neither one provides conclusive arguments. The current paper aims at evaluation of the reasoning within this controversy and brings up a novel perspective as well as consequent research suggestions.</p></div> Marilien Claire Marzolla ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-18 2018-12-18 7 7 20 The Neurotrophic Hypothesis of Depression: Treatment Implications for Erythropoietin <p>A purely neurotransmitter-based explanation of major depression and antidepressant action, such as the monoamine hypothesis, falls short to explain the delayed clinical onset of most agents in reference to the immediate neurochemical effects. Recently, in attempts to understand the psychobiological underpinnings of depression, the focus shifted to an involvement of intracellular signaling cascades, gene expression and protein translation. This review discusses evidence for the so-called neurotrophic hypothesis of depression, which emphasizes stress-induced disruption of brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF), second messenger systems, gene expression and subsequent neural atrophy and network changes that manifest as depressive symptoms in the etiology of depression. Additionally, within the framework of the neurotrophic hypothesis, the treatment potential of the cytokine <em>Erythropoietin</em> is discussed.</p> Lea Julia Mertens ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-18 2018-12-18 7 21 34 Sex Differences in the Effects of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Analogue Treatment on Adolescents’ Limbic System <p>Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Analogues (GnRHa) are used in conditions such as Gender Dysphoria and precocious puberty to suppress puberty in children or adolescents. This essay poses the question whether this blocking of sex hormones affects brain development of regions of the limbic system. It is hypothesized that the influence of GnRHa’s on limbic system development shows differences between the sexes. While animal research has indeed indicated sex differences in the effect of puberty suppression on hippocampus and amygdala gene expression and amygdala volume, direct evidence in human subjects is lacking. It is suggested that well controlled studies in humans on the effects of GnRHa’s on brain development could provide valuable insights into the origin of sex differences in the brain, as well as contribute to better psychological treatment of individuals who receive GnRHa’s.</p> Mathilde Kennis ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-18 2018-12-18 7 35 46 The role of experience and social learning in the tool use and tool making of the New Caledonian crow (Corvus moneduloides) Tool use and manufacture are central points in the development of human culture and certain sophisticated aspects of it are believed to be uniquely human. Studies of New Caledonian crows present findings that question this uniqueness and suggest highly sophisticated tool behavior. The purpose of this paper is to discuss this behavior and to present different theories on how this behavior is obtained. Recurring evidence supports the view that inheritance interacts with experience and social learning over the course of the development of tool use and tool manufacture, but further research is required to identify the extent to which each aspect contributes to it. Nevertheless, the behavior of the New Caledonian crow may offer insight on the development of human culture. Nina Tabea Brennecke ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-18 2018-12-18 7 47 58