Neurochemical, neurobiological and toxic effects of Amphetamine on memory consolidation. Review
AbstractThere is consistent evidence that amphetamine at therapeutic doses can improve attention and memory via its direct and indirect impact on several neurotransmitters and amino acids. However,acute and chronic amphetamine use can deplete endogenous antioxidants, cause oxidative stress and toxicity. Interestingly, based on models of long-term potentiation it has been proposed that neuroplasticity may be affected by amphetamine-induced changes leading to altered gene expression, a process required for consolidation of new memories. These connections however remain yet unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present review is to investigate the drug’s impact on consolidation taking into account its pharmacodynamic, -kinetic and toxic properties. Conclusively, it seems that amphetamine may facilitate consolidation, and dopamine can mediate amphetamine-induced neurtoxic effects via an interaction between excitatory and inhibitory pathways.
Angelucci F, Gruber SH, El khoury A, Tonali PA, Mathé AA. Chronic
amphetamine treatment reduces NGF and BDNF in the rat brain. Eur
Carvalho, M., Carmo, H., Costa, V.M., Capela, J. P., Pontes, H., Remiao, F.,
Carvalho, F., & Bastos M. L. (2012). Toxicity of amphetamines: an update. Arch Toxicol, 86, 1167–1231.
Cooke, S.F., & Bliss, T.V.P. (2006). Plasticity in the human central nervous
system. Brain, 129, 1659-1673.
de la Torre, R., Farre, M., Navarro, M., Pacifici, R., Zuccaro, P., & Pichini, S.
(2004). Clinical pharmacokinetics of amfetamine and related substances: monitoring in conventional and non-conventional matrices. Clin Pharmacokinet ,43 (3),157–185.
Debiec, J., LeDoux J.E., & Nader, K. (2002). Cellular and Systems
Reconsolidation in the Hippocampus Neuron, 36, 527–538.
Hutson, P. H., Tarazi, F. I., Madhoo, M., Slawecki, C., & Patkar, A. A. (2014).
Preclinical pharmacology of amphetamine: Implications for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 143, 253–264.
Laruelle, M., Abi-Dargham, A., van Dyck, C. H., Gil, R., D'Souza, C. D., & Erdos,
J. (1996). Single photon emission computerized tomography imaging of amphetamine- induced dopamine release in drug-free schizophrenic subjects. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 93, 9235–9240.
Lee J. L. C., Everitt B. J., Thomas K. L. (2004). Independent Cellular Processes
for Hippocampal Memory Consolidation and Reconsolidation. Science, 304, 839-842.
Myhrer, T. (2003). Neurotransmitter systems involved in learning and memory in
the rat: a meta-analysis based on studies of four behavioral tasks. Brain Research Reviews, 41, 268–287.
Nicoll, R.A., & Malenka, R.C. (1995) Contrasting properties of two forms of
long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. Nature, 377, 115–118.
Patrick, K. S., & Markowitz, J. S. (1997) Pharmacology of Methylphenidate,
Amphetamine Enantiomers and Pemoline in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Human Psychopharmacology, 12, 527-546.
Pehek, E. A., & Bi, Y. (1997). Ritanserin administration potentiates
amphetamine-stimulated dopamine release in the rat prefrontal cortex. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry, 21, 671–682.
Porras, A. and Mora, F. (1993). Dopamine receptor antagonist blocks the
release of glycine, GABA, and taurine produced by amphetamine. Brain Research Bulletin, 31(3-4), pp.305-310.
Rahman, S., & Bardo, M. T. (2008). Environmental enrichment increases
amphetamine- induced glutamate neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens: a neurochemical study. Brain Res, 1197, 40–46.
Ricaurte, G.A., Bryan, G., Strauss, L., Seiden, L.S., & Schuster, C.R. (1985).
Hallucinogenic amphetamine selectively destroys brain serotonin nerve terminals. Science, 229, 986–988.
Squire, L.R. (2004). Memory systems of the brain: A brief history and current
perspective. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 82, 171-177.
Stahl, S.M. (2013) Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: neuroscientific basis
and practical applications (4th Ed). Cambridge University Press.
Strupp, B. J., Bunsey, M., Levitsky, D., & Kesler, M. (1991). Time-Dependent
Effects of Post-trial Amphetamine Treatment in Rats: Evidence for Enhanced Storage of Representational Memory. Behavioral and Neural Biology, 56, 62-76.
Sumowski, J. F., Chiaravalloti, N., Erlanger, D., Kaushik, T., HB Benedict, R., &
DeLuca J. (2011). L-amphetamine improves memory in MS patients with objective memory impairment. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 17(9), 1141–1145.
Wang, J. Q., & McGinty, J. F. (1996). D1 and D2 receptor regulation of
preproenkephalin and preprodynorphin mRNA in rat striatum following acute injection of amphetamine or methamphetamine. Synapse, 22, 114–122.
Xu, T. X., Ma, Q., Spealman, R. D., & Yao, W. D. (2010). Amphetamine
modulation of long- term potentiation in the prefrontal cortex: dose dependency, monoaminergic contributions, and paradoxical rescue in hyperdopaminergic mutant. J Neurochem, 115, 1643–1654.
Zhu, M. Y., Shamburger, S., Li, J., & Ordway, G. A. (2000). Regulation of the
human norepinephrine transporter by cocaine and amphetamine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 295, 951–959.
Authors can use either their accepted author manuscript for:
- Use at a conference, meeting or for teaching purposes.
- Internal training.
- Sharing individual articles with colleagues for their research use (also known as 'scholarly sharing').
- Use in a subsequent compilation of the author's, or the supervisor's works.
- Inclusion in a thesis or dissertation.
- Reuse of portions or extracts from the article in other works.
- Preparation of derivative works (other than for commercial purposes).