Did the perpetrator have a gun, or did he not? – Children’s false memories and the developmental reversal phenomenon
AbstractDevelopmental reversal in false memories is the counterintuitive phenomenon that older children and adults are more prone to developing false memories than younger children and that false memories increase with age. The current paper discusses the theories behind this phenomenon and the paradigms that can be used to investigate it. Not only age is a prominent factor in the development of false memories. The role of emotional load of the falsely remembered words will also be investigated.
Brainerd, C., Forrest, J., Karibian, D., & Reyna, V. (2006). Development of the false-memory illusion. Developmental Psychology, 42, 962-979.
Brainerd, C., & Reyna, V. (1998). Fuzzy-Trace Theory and children's false memories. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 71, 81-129.
Brainerd, C., & Reyna, V. (2002). Fuzzy-Trace Theory and false memory. American Psychological Society, 11, 164-169.
Brainerd, C., & Reyna, V. (2005). The science of false memory. New York: Oxford University Press.
Brainerd, C., Reyna, V.,& Zember, E. (2011). Theoretical and forensic implications of developmental studies of the DRM illusion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 365–380.
Bruck, M., & Ceci, S. (1999). The suggestibility of children's memory. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 419-439.
Ceci, S. J., & Bruck, M. (1993). Suggestibility of the child witness: A historical review and synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 403– 439
Dalton, A., & Daneman, M. (2006). Social suggestibility to central and peripheral misinformation. Memory, 14, 486-501.
Howe, M. L. (2005). Children (but not adults) can inhibit false memories. Psychological Science, 16, 927–931
Howe, M. (2006). Developmentally invariant dissociations in children's true and falsememories: Not all relatedness is created equal. Child Development, 77, 1112-1123.
Howe, M. (2007). Children's emotional false memories. Psychological Science, 18, 856-860.
Howe, M. L., Cicchetti, D., Toth, S. L., & Cerrito, B. M. (2004). True and false memories in maltreated children. Child Development, 75, 1402–1417
Howe, M. L., Gagnon, N., & Thouas, L. (2008). Development of false memories in bilingual children and adults. Journal of Memory and Language, 58, 669–681.
Howe, M., Wimmer, M., Gagnon, N., & Plumpton, S. (2009). An Associative-Activation Theory of children’s and adults’ memory illusions. Journal of Memory and Language, 60, 229-251.
Loftus, E. (1997). Creating false memory. Scientific American, 277, 70-75.
Loftus, E. (2003). Make-believe memories. American Psychologist, 58, 867-873.
Luna, K., & Migueles, M. (2009). Acceptance and confidence of central and peripheral misinformation. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 12, 405-413.
Meade, M., Watson, J., Balota, D., & Roediger, H. (2007). The roles of spreading activation and retrieval mode in producing false recognition in the DRM paradigm. Journal of Memory and Language, 56, 305-320.
Otgaar, H., Candel, I., & Merckelbach, H. (2008). Children's false memories: Easier to elecit for a negative than for a neutral event. Acta Psychologica, 128, 350-354.
Roediger, H., Jacoby, J., & McDermott, K. (1996). Misinformation effects in recall: Creating false memories through repeated retrieval. Journal of Memory and Laguage, 35, 300-318.
Van der Hart, O., Boon, S., & Haijtmajer Jansen, O. (1997). Ritual abuse in European countries: A clinical's perspective. In G. A. Fraser (Ed.), The dilemma of ritual abuse: Cautions and guides for therapists (pp. 137-164). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Press.