AbstractThe term ‘transparency’ seems to be omnipresent in today’s debate on governments’ organization and practice of the relation with its citizens. There are several definitions available provided by various sources. For instance, the Encyclopaedia of Democratic Thought states that transparency “denotes government according to fixed and published rules, on the basis of information and procedures that are accessible to the public, and […] within clearly demarcated fields of activity” (in Hood & Heald, 2006, p. 4). However, the availability of different strains of definition gives a blurry impression of the concept of transparency. This book focuses on the difficulties revolving around the realization of transparency. Each chapter approaches implementation techniques from diverse angles and various practical contexts. In this, the volume adds to the current debate by identifying key challenges with regard to the design of transparency related policies. It is important to note that due to the theoretical complexity of transparency, the concept in itself contains key challenges which shall be briefly illustrated. Although ultimately transparency is considered to improve efficiency, the process of building transparency can take significant time and resources. Very often, the more effective forms of transparency can require more work to implement, creating the need for a balance. Types of transparency which increase public participation in decision-making can create particular efficiency losses, due to the necessity of long consultation processes and compromise.