To what extent is the taking and use of neuroscientific evidence compatible with the rights enshrined in the European Convention of Human Rights?
AbstractCriminal law is arguably among the most important parts of any system of law as its purpose is to counter serious forms of socially undesired behavior such as assault on one’s property, physical integrity and life. Therefore in order to fulfill the high expectations society has of it, it should be equipped with the best tools to find out the truth, determine who is guilty and either punish or send them to rehabilitation. To achieve these goals it has the power to gather all kinds of evidence and invade people’s liberties and private lives. These extensive prerogatives are controlled to a large extent, but not only, by the protection from the state’s intrusion into private life enshrined in human rights documents such as the right to fair trial and the right to privacy in the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). The protection granted to individuals in this way, however, is far from absolute and it is often reduced in the process of solving particularly important cases. Thus the answer to whether human rights are infringed can often be ambiguous, policy-driven and depend on the balancing of interests in the particular case.This paper endeavors to discuss whether the compulsory taking and use of neuroscientific evidence in the form of fMRI lie-detection and Guilty Knowledge Tests (‘GKT’ from now on) as well as Brain Fingerprinting (‘BF’ from now on) detection of existing knowledge from the defendant in criminal proceedings complies with the right to fair trial and particularly the right to silence which is part of it; and the right to privacy as enshrined in the European Convention on Human Rights.
Allan v United Kingdom ECHR (2002)
Fisher v United States, 425 U.S. 391 (1976)
Funke v France ECHR (1993)
Jalloh v Germany ECHR (2006)
John Murray v United Kingdom ECHR (1996)
Katz v United States, 389 U.S. 347 (1967)
Kyllo v United States, 533 U.S. 27 (2001)
Niemietz v Germany ECHR (1992)
Peck v United Kingdom ECHR (2003)
Schmerber v. California, 384 U.S. 757 (1966)
Saunders v United Kingdom ECHR (1996)
Serves v France ECHR (1997)
Von Hannover v Germany ECHR (2004)
Books and articles:
Aggarwal, N. (2009). Neuroimaging, Culture, and Forensic Psychiatry. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 37(2), pp. 239-244.
Aharoni, E, Funk, C, Sinnott-Armstrong, W and Gazzaniga, M. (2008). Can Neurological Evidence Help Courts Assess Criminal Responsibility? Lessons from Law and Neuroscience. The Year in Cognitive Neuroscience 1124, pp. 145-160, retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezproxy.ub.unimaas.nl/doi/10.1196/annals.1440.007/abstract
Allen, R & Mace, K. (2004). The Self-Incrimination Clause explained and its Future Predicted. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 94(2), pp. 243-294.
Appelbaum, P. (2009). Through a Glass Darkly: Functional Neuroimaging Evidence Enters the Courtroom. Law & Psychiatry 60(1), pp. 21-23, retrieved from: http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleID=100059
Berger, M. (2005). Europeanizing Self-Incrimination: The Right to Remain Silent in the European Court of Human Rights. Columbia Journal of European Law 12, pp. 339-382.
Bignami, F. (2008). Case for Tolerant Constitutional Patriotism: The Right to Privacy before the European Courts. Cornell International Law Journal 41, pp. 211-250.
Bles M & Haynes J, D. (2008). Detecting Concealed Information Using Brain-Imaging Technology. Neurocase 14(1), pp. 82-92, retrieved from: http://www.tandfonline.com.ezproxy.ub.unimaas.nl/doi/abs/10.1080/13554790801992784
Davatzikos, C., K. Ruparel, Y. Fan, D.G. Shen, M. Acharyya, J.W. Loughead, R.C. Gur, and D.D. Langleben. (2005). Classifying spatial patterns of brain activity with machine learning methods: Application to lie detection, NeuroImage 28, pp. 663-668, retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.ub.unimaas.nl/science/article/pii/S1053811905005914
Brems, E. (2005). Conflicting human rights: an exploration in the context of the right to a fair trial in the European convention on human rights. Human Rights Quarterly 27(1), pp. 294-326.
Farell, B. (2010). Can’t Get You Out of My Head: The Human Rights Implications of Using Brain Scans as Criminal Evidence. Interdisciplinary Journal of Human Rights Law 4(1), pp. 89-95.
Farwell, L. (2012). Brain fingerprinting: a comprehensive tutorial review of detection of concealed information with event-related brain potentials. Cognitive Neurodynamics 6(2), pp. 115-154, retrieved from: http://link.springer.com.ezproxy.ub.unimaas.nl/article/10.1007% 2Fs11571-012-9192-2
Fields, H. (2010). Can Neuroscience Identify Pain?. In Mansfield, A., Gazzaniga M. [eds.]; A Judge’s Guide to Neuroscience, Santa Barbara, University of California Santa Barbara, retrieved from: http://www.sagecenter.ucsb.edu/sites/staging.sagecenter.ucsb.edu/files/ file-and-multimedia/A_Judges_Guide_to_Neuroscience%5Bsample%5D.pdf
Gamer, M, Klimecki, O, Bauermann, T, Stoeter, P, Vossel, G. (2012). fMRI-activation patterns in the detection of concealed information rely on memory-related effects. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 7, pp. 506-515, retrieved from: http://scan.oxfordjournals.org.ezproxy.ub.unimaas.nl/content/7/5/506
Ganis, G., Kosslyn, S.M., Stose, S., Thompson, W.L., Yurgelun-Todd, D.A. (2003). ‘Neural correlates of different types of deception An fMRI investigation’. Cerebral Cortex 13(8), pp. 830-836, retrieved from: http://cercor.oxfordjournals.org/content/13/8/830
Grafton, S. (2010). Has neuroscience already appeared in the courtroom?. In Mansfield, A., Gazzaniga M. [eds.]; A Judge’s Guide to Neuroscience, Santa Barbara, University of California Santa Barbara, retrieved from: http://www.sagecenter.ucsb.edu/sites/staging.sagecenter.ucsb.edu/files/file-and-multimedia/A_Judges_Guide_to_Neuroscience%5Bsample%5D.pdf
Greene, J. & Cohen, J. (2004). For the law, neuroscience changes nothing and everything. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 359, pp. 1774-1785, retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.ezproxy.ub.unimaas.nl/pmc/articles/PMC169 3457/?tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract
Halliburton, C. (2007). Letting Katz out of the Bag: Cognitive Freedom and Fourth Amendment fidelity. Hastings Law Journal 59, pp. 309-368.
Halliburton, C. (2009). How Privacy Killed Katz: a tale of cognitive freedom and the property of personhood as Fourth Amendment norm. Akron Law Review 42(3), pp. 803-885.
Hammond, C. (2005). Neurofeedback Treatment of Depression and Anxiety. Journal of Adult Development 12, pp. 131-137, retrieved from: http://link.springer.com.ezproxy.ub.unimaas.nl/ article/10.1007%2Fs10804-005-7029-5
Holley, B. (2009). It’s All in Your Head: Neurotechnological Lie Detection and the Fourth and Fifth Amendments. Developments in Mental Health Law 28(1), pp. 1-24.
Kerr, O. (2004). The Fourth Amendment and New Technologies: Constitutional Myths and the Case for Caution. Michigan Law Review 102(5), pp. 801-888.
Kozel, F., Revell, L., Lorberbaum, J., Shastri, A., Elhai, J., Horner M. et al. (2004). A pilot study of functional magnetic resonance imaging brain correlates of deception in healthy young men. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 16, pp. 295-305, retrieved from: http://neuro.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleID=101888
Kozel, F., Padgett, T., George, M. (2004). A replication study of the neural correlates of deception. Behavioral Neuroscience 118 (4), pp. 852– 856, retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.ub.unimaas.nl/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=614090d3-459a- 4f21-927c-c2c60e3c3de5%40sessionmgr15&vid=1&hid=9
Kulich, R., Macyewicz, R. & Scrivani, S. (2009). Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Expert Testimony. Pain Medicine 10(2), retrieved from: http:// onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezproxy.ub.unimaas.nl/doi/10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00567.x/ abstract
Langleben, D. D., Schroeder, 1 L., Maldjian, J. A., Gur, R. C., McDonald, S., Ragland, J. D. (2002).Brain Activity during Simulated Deception: An Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Study. NeuroImage 15, pp.727-732, retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.ub.unimaas.nl/science/article/pii/S1053811901910031
Delmas-Marty, M., Spencer, J.R.. (2002). European Criminal Proceedings, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
MacLaren, V. (2001). A Quantitative Review of the Guilty Knowledge Test. Journal of Applied Psychology 86(4), pp. 674-683.
McMonagle, E. (2007). Functional Neuroimaging and the Law: A Canadian Perspective. The American Journal of Bioethics 7(9), pp. 69-70, retrieved from: http://www.tandfonline.com.ezproxy.ub.unimaas.nl/doi/abs/10.1080/15265160701518854
Moriary, J. C. (2008). Flickering Admissibility: Neuroimaging Evidence in the US Courts. Behavioral Sciences and the Law 26, pp. 29-49, retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezproxy.ub.unimaas.nl/doi/10.1002/bsl.795/abstract
Morse, S. (2008). Determinism and the Death of Folk Psychology: Two Challenges To Responsibility from Neuroscience. Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology 9, pp. 1-36.
Morse, S. (2011). Avoiding Irrational NeuroLaw Exuberance: A Plea for Neuromodesty. Mercer Law Review 62, pp. 837-860.
Raichle, R. (2010). What is an fMRI?. In Mansfield, A., Gazzaniga M. [eds.]; A Judge’s Guide to Neuroscience, Santa Barbara, University of California Santa Barbara, retrieved from: http:// www.sagecenter.ucsb.edu/sites/staging.sagecenter.ucsb.edu/files/file-and-multimedia/A_ Judges_Guide_to_Neuroscience%5Bsample%5D.pdf
Rosenfeld, P., Soskins, M., Bosh, G., Ryan, A. (2004). Simple, effective countermeasures to P300-based tests of detection of concealed information. Psychophysiology 41(2), pp. 205- 219, retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezproxy.ub.unimaas.nl/doi/10.1111/j.1469- 8986.2004.00158.x/abstract;jsessionid=8ACBDD82A825EA63FE3BB10FED30380C.d04t01
Rosenfield, P. (2005). ”Brain Fingerprinting”: A Critical Analysis. The Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice 4(1), pp. 20-37, retrieved from: http://cns.bu.edu/~gsc/Articles/ Brain_FingerPrinting.pdf
Rosenfield, P. & Labkovsky, E. (2007). New P300-based protocol to detect concealed information: Resistance to mental countermeasures against only half the irrelevant stimuli and a possible ERP indicator of countermeasures. Psychophysiology 47(6), pp. 1002-1010, retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezproxy.ub.unimaas.nl/doi/10.1111/ j.1469-8986.2010.01024.x/abstract
Stoller, S. & Wolpe, P. (2007). Emerging Neurotechnologies for Lie Detection and the Fifth Amendment. American Journal of Law and Medicine 33, pp. 359-376, retrieved from: http://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1032&context=neuroethics_pubs
Won Choi, S. et al. (2011). ‘Is Alpha Wave Neurofeedback Effective with Randomized Clinical Trials in Depression? A Pilot Study’. Neuropsychobiology 63, pp. 43-51, retrieved from: http:// www.karger.com.ezproxy.ub.unimaas.nl/Article/Pdf/322290 Trechsel, S. (2005). Human Rights in Criminal Proceedings, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Wimberly, M. (2007). Rethinking the Substantive Due Process Right to Privacy: Grounding Privacy in the Fourth Amendment. Vanderbilt Law Review 60, pp. 283-324.
Wu, W. (2011). Interrogational fairness under the European Convention on Human Rights. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice 39, pp. 37-59, retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.ub.unimaas.nl/science/article/pii/S1756061611000231