The effect of bitter, umami and sweet tastants on the food intake regulation
AbstractBackground. In the past decades, the prevalence of obesity and overweight has risen to epidemic dimensions. Nowadays, there is a great demand for new and efficient treatments to decrease this prevalence. Literature revealed, that the gastrointestinal tract contains taste receptors, similar to those present on the tongue, which may have an influence on the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. However the exact working mechanism is unknown. Objective. This study investigated, the effects of the bitter-, sweet-, umami tastants and a combination of those on ad libitum food intake and gastrointestinal hormone release. Hypothesis. We hypothesized that an intraduodenal infusion of the bitter, umami and sweet tastants and a combination of these tastants, results in a significant reduction in food intake and an significant increase in the release of the gastrointestinal peptides GLP-1 and CCK. Furthermore, the largest reduction on ad libitum food intake, will be achieved by the combination treatment, because this will stimulate multiple taste receptors instead of just one group. Finally, a bitter infusion will induce greater effects on the ad libitum food intake and gastrointestinal hormone release, compared to the sweet and umami tastants. This because the bitter receptor is more sensitive to sense its tastant compared to the others.Methods. In this double blind, randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over study, we tested 15 healthy volunteers (Men: 5; Age 23.94±1.97 years; BMI 22.43±0.33 kg/m2 ). The study consisted of five identical test days. During these days, the effects of the tastants umami (Monosodium glutamate), sweet (Rebaudioside A), bitter (Quinine), a combination of these tastants and the placebo (tap water) treatment, were collected. This by infusing them into the duodenum by means of a nasoduodenal tube. Furthermore, multiple blood samples were drawn before, during and after the infusions to determine gastrointestinal peptide release of GLP-1 and CCK into the blood. Finally, an ad libitum pasta meal was provided to define the effects of the tastants on ad libitum meal intake.
WHO. Obesity and overweight [updated May 2014]. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/.
Perry B, Wang Y. Appetite regulation and weight control: the role of gut hormones. Nutrition & diabetes. 2012;2:e26.
Suzuki K, Jayasena CN, Bloom SR. The gut hormones in appetite regulation. Journal of obesity. 2011;2011:528401.
Heelkunde Nvv. Richtlijn Morbide Obesitas 2011. Available from: http://www.mdl.nl/uploads/240/1000/ Richtlijn-morbide-obesitas-final.pdf.
Weigle DS, Breen PA, Matthys CC, Callahan HS, Meeuws KE, Burden VR, et al. A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2005;82(1):41-8.
Sumithran P, Prendergast LA, Delbridge E, Purcell K, Shulkes A, Kriketos A, et al. Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss. The New England journal of medicine. 2011;365(17):1597-604.
Rosenbaum M, Hirsch J, Gallagher DA, Leibel RL. Long-term persistence of adaptive thermogenesis in subjects who have maintained a reduced body weight. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2008;88(4):906-12.
Leibel RL, Hirsch J. Diminished energy requirements in reduced-obese patients. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. 1984;33(2):164-70.
Geraedts MC, Troost FJ, Saris WH. Gastrointestinal targets to modulate satiety and food intake. Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. 2011;12(6):470-7.
Maljaars J, Peters HP, Masclee AM. Review article: The gastrointestinal tract: neuroendocrine regulation of satiety and food intake. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2007;26 Suppl 2:241-50.
Foster-Schubert KE, Cummings DE. Emerging therapeutic strategies for obesity. Endocrine reviews. 2006;27(7):779-93.
Chen MC, Wu SV, Reeve JR, Jr., Rozengurt E. Bitter stimuli induce Ca2+ signaling and CCK release in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells: role of L-type voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels. American journal of physiology Cell physiology. 2006;291(4):C726-39.
Geraedts M. C. P. TFJ, Saris W. H. M. . Different tastants and low-caloric sweeteners induce differential effects on the release of satiety hormones. Food Chemistry. 2011;129:731-8.
Bezencon C, le Coutre J, Damak S. Taste-signaling proteins are coexpressed in solitary intestinal epithelial cells. Chemical senses. 2007;32(1):41-9.
Wu SV, Rozengurt N, Yang M, Young SH, Sinnett-Smith J, Rozengurt E. Expression of bitter taste receptors of the T2R family in the gastrointestinal tract and enteroendocrine STC-1 cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2002;99(4):2392-7.
Finger TE KS. Taste isn’t just for taste buds anymore. F1000 Biol Rep2011 [updated 2014]. Available from: http:// www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/31441/title/Matters-of-Taste/.
Ruiz CJ, Wray K, Delay E, Margolskee RF, Kinnamon SC. Behavioral evidence for a role of alpha-gustducin in glutamate taste. Chemical senses. 2003;28(7):573-9.
Rogers PJ, Blundell JE. Umami and appetite: effects of monosodium glutamate on hunger and food intake in human subjects. Physiology & behavior. 1990;48(6):801-4.
Masic U, Yeomans MR. Does monosodium glutamate interact with macronutrient composition to influence subsequent appetite? Physiology & behavior. 2013;116-117:23-9.
Hosaka H, Kusano M, Zai H, Kawada A, Kuribayashi S, Shimoyama Y, et al. Monosodium glutamate stimulates secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 and reduces postprandial glucose after a lipid-containing meal. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2012;36(9):895-903.
Anton SD, Martin CK, Han H, Coulon S, Cefalu WT, Geiselman P, et al. Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Appetite. 2010;55(1):37-43.
Delta T. Digi-prik 2012. Available from: http://www.digi-prik.nl/.
Urbaniak G, & Plous, S Research Randomizer (Version 4.0) 2013 [updated June 22th, 2013]. Available from:http://www.randomizer.org/.