The relationship between attachment, the selfconscious emotions of shame and guilt & problem behavior in adolescents
AbstractA cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the relationship between attachment, the self-conscious emotions of shame and guilt, and problem behavior in adolescents. The study was performed in clinical adolescents aged 13-18 years (N = 31) who had been in contact with the Child Care and Protection Agency. They completed questionnaires measuring shame and guilt, the quality of the attachment relationship and the extent of problem behavior. Results demonstrated that communication, a positive dimension of attachment, was positively associated with various forms of shame and guilt. It was found that trust in parents and peers was associated with a higher extent of conduct problems and hyperactivity. Results also revealed that guilt (unambiguous) was positively correlated with pro-social behavior. Shame (ambiguous) was positively associated with emotional symptoms. Regression analysis showed that both age and gender accounted for an independent and significant proportion of the variance in children’s problem behavior. Altogether, these results fit with the theory that attachment (in)security is involved in the extent of problem behavior and people’s proneness to experience self-conscious emotions.
Ammaniti, M., Van IJzendoorn, M. H., Speranza, A. M., & Tambelli, R. (2000). Internal working model of attachment during late childhood and early adolescence: an exploration of stability and change.Attachment & Human Development, 2, 328-346.
Armsden, G.C., & Greenberg, M.T. (1987). The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 427–454.
Aunola, K., & Nurmi, J. (2005). The role of parenting styles in children’s problem behavior. Child Development, 76, 1144-1159.
Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss. Volume I. New York: Basic Books.
Cooper, M. L., Shaver, P. R., & Collins, N. L. (1998). Attachment styles, emotion regulation and adjustment in adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1380-1397.
Erickson, M. F., Sroufe, L. A., & Egeland, B. (1985). The relationship between quality of attachment and behavior problems in preschool in a high-risk sample. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50, 147-166.
Feilhauer, J., Cima, M., & Arntz, A. (2012). Assessing callous–unemotional traits across different groups of youths: Further cross-cultural validation of the Inventory of Callous–Unemotional Traits. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 35, 251- 262.
Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. Los Angeles: Sage.
Gilbert, P., & Miles, J. N. (2000). Sensitivity to Social Put-Down: it’s relationship to perceptions of social rank, shame, social anxiety, depression, anger and self-other blame. Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 757-774.
Goodman, R. (1997). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: a research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 581-586.
Kochanska, G., & Kim, S. (2013). Early attachment organization with both parents and future behavior problems: From infancy to middle childhood. Child Development, 84, 283- 296.
Leith, K. P., & Baumeister, R. F. (1998). Empathy, shame, guilt, and narratives of interpersonal conflicts: Guilt-prone people are better at perspective taking. Journal of Personality, 66, 1-37.
Lewis, H. B. (1971). Shame and guilt in neurosis. Psychoanalytic Review, 58, 419-438.
Lewis, M. (2008). Self-conscious emotions, embarrassment, pride, shame and guilt. In M. Lewis, J.M. Haviland-Jones, & L. Feldman Barrett (Red.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 742-756). New York: The GuilfordPress.
Meij, H. (2011). De basis van opvoeding en ontwikkeling. Utrecht: Nederlands Jeugdinstituut.
Muris, P., Meesters, C., & van den Berg, F. (2003). The strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 12, 1-8.
Muris, P., & Meesters, C. (2014). Small or big in the eyes of the other: on the developmental psychopathology of self-conscious emotions as shame, guilt, and pride. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 17, 19-40.
Muris, P., Meesters, C., Cima, M., Verhagen, M., Brochard, N., Sanders, A., Kempener, C., Beurskens, J., & Meesters, V. (2014). Bound to feel bad about oneself: relations between attachment and the selfconscious emotions of guilt and shame in children and adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23, 1278-1288.
Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Luyckx, K., & Goossens, L. (2006). Parenting and adolescent problem behavior: an integrated model with adolescent self-disclosure and perceived parental knowledge as intervening variables. Developmental Psychology, 42, 305-318.
Sroufe, L. A. (2005). Attachment and development: A prospective, longitudinal study from birth to adulthood. Attachment and Human Development, 7, 349-367.
Stegge, H., & Ferguson, T. J. (1990). Child-Child Attribution and Reaction Survey (C-CARS). Unpublished manuscript. Amsterdam: Free University and Logan, UT: Utah State University.
Stegge, H., & Ferguson, T. J. (1994). Self-Conscious Emotions: Maladaptive and Adaptive Scales (SCEMAS). Unpublished manuscript. Amsterdam: Free University and Logan, UT: Utah State University.
Thompson, R. J., & Berenbaum, H. (2006). Shame reactions to everyday dilemmas are associated with depressive disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 30, 415-425.
Tracy, J. L., & Robins, R. W. (2004). “Putting the Self Into Self-Conscious Emotions: A Theoretical Model”. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 103-125.
Zaal, S., Boerhave, M., & Koster, M. (2009). Hechting basisveiligheid basisvertrouwen: begeleiding en behandeling. Amsterdam: Cordaan en Amsta.
Zegers, M. A., Schuengel, C., Van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Janssens, J. M. (2008). Attachment and problem behavior of adolescents during residential treatment. Attachment & Human Development, 10, 91-103.